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This essay portrays and investigates the key frameworks that can uphold or obstruct adolescent
development and examines the connections ...
This essay portrays and investigates the key frameworks that can uphold or obstruct adolescent
development and examines the connections between home and school climate supporting central
issues with credible literature. It starts by discussing how the three microsystems; home
environment, school environment, and peer group influence adolescent development. Out of the
three, it is evident that the home environment contributes a lot towards a child ’sadolescent
development. It then defines confidential, sensitive, and effective parent engagement in
adolescent development describes the mesosystem strategies teachers can use to keep parents
hooked up in their children ’sadolescent development journey, and finally ends in adeductive
The influence of microsystems on adolescent development
The home environment
A home environment has ahuge impact on an individual ’spersonality, behavior, likes, dislikes,
and the way he or she interacts with people around him or her. This is because home is the
immediate environment that individuals get exposed to before being introduced to other systems
like school and friends. It plays a vital role in how individuals turn out to be during the
adolescent stage of their lives, and as they say, charity begins at home. The home environment
starts with the genetics achild inherits from the parents. If aparent is temperamental then the
child is most likely to turn out temperamental too. They say afruit does not fall far from the tree.
Most kids like to emulate what they see in their surroundings, the immediate surrounding, in this
case, is their parents (Soyer, 2019) .
In most cases, kids look up to their parents ’personality, and behavior. If parents in ahousehold
are short-tempered, their adolescent kids will most probably turn out short-tempered. On the
other hand, if their parents are calm and composed in the way they handle their business, their
adolescent kids will most probably turn out the same, except for rare cases. In afamily where an
adolescent is brought up without one of the parents, especially afather, in most cases, he or she
turns out rogue. Adolescence is a crucial passage of life that requires an adolescent to get a
mother ’slove and have afather figure in his or her life. Most adolescent kids with both parents
turn out better than those raised by single parents.
Parents ’involvement in the adolescent ’slife also influences positively the development of the
kid. Parents ’ involvement in a kid ’s birthday party, parent-teacher conferences, his or her
performance in school, and good communication builds adolescent confidence and self-esteem.
Confidence and self-esteem enable an adolescent to block negative influence from the outside
world. When raising an adolescent, both parents need to be on the same page when it comes to
discipline. Parents having conflicted decisions and perspective on certain things revolving
around an adolescent ’slife will make he or she have aconflicted analogy of what stands to be
An adolescent development can also be influenced by the way people in the home neighborhood
treat him or her. Take, for instance, an adolescent bullied all his or her life is most likely to be
coaxed into breaking the law because he or she is afraid and wants to fit in. The way people in
the neighborhood treat an individual also depends on how the adolescent treats them. He or she
can be confident, calm, composed, and have high self-esteem, which would make people in the
community respect him or her. He or she might be radical and short-tempered, which would
make people in the neighborhood fear him or her.
The economic state of an adolescent ’shome can influence the child to grind or lazy around. If an
adolescent comes from arich family he or she might not be as ambitious as those coming from a
humble background. This is why you find adolescents coming from less privileged backgrounds
involved in drug trafficking just to better their lives financially.
The school environment
The school environment also hugely influences adolescent lives ’ development. The school
policies, rules, and regulations shape the lives of many adolescent kids. The policies, rules, and
regulations make every student equal and in line (Gaias et.al; 2018) .Adolescent kids who are
rude get inline because It is either you follow them or receive punishment, get suspended, or get
expelled. Racial and socioeconomic segregation in schools can also influence their development.
If he or she is racially or socio-economically segregated or treated unfairly, he or she might turn
out to be violent, angry, confident, or even unfair. The violence, anger, and unfairness might
come because of him or her seeing the unfairness done and there is no justice done. The
confidence may come because of him or her constantly trying to defend himself or herself.
The relationship the teachers have with adolescent kids is another factor that adversely affects
adolescent kids. If the teachers are supportive the adolescent will develop right whereas if the
teachers do not support the students will not turn out the right way. The teachers should pose a
good example to be emulated by their students. During this period is when these students are
coming of age and they start realizing their bodies. It is at this moment that the teachers have to
have ameaningful relationship with them. They should advise them on matters of sex education
and know-how to enable them to make the right decisions regarding their sex life. Co-curricular
activities like soccer, basketball, and other sports also shape the adolescent students, because if
he or she wants to participate in acertain sport then he or she should abide by the set regulations
for that sport.
Peer pressure is areal influence on an adolescent ’sdevelopment. Having apeer group gives an
adolescent asense of belonging, and raises his or her self-esteem and confidence. Conduct is
halfway affected by aperson's examination of their abilities to those of individuals around them
(Mishra et.al; 2018) .Adolescent kids like to compare themselves to their peers. This influences
the hairstyle they rock, the clothes they wear, the music they listen to, their talking and choice of
words, their work ethic, their involvement in breaking rules, their behavior, their sex life, and
drug use. An adolescent with reckless friends who are sexually active, break rules and have bad
behavior most likely turn out to be reckless (Tom éet.al; 2012) .The vice versa is also true. They
say show me your friends and Iwill show you who you are.
The adolescent kids who are mostly influenced are those who have low self-esteem and do not
believe in themselves. These pose a weakness that can be exploited by their confident peers
because they are emotionally bonded to them.
Confidential, sensitive, and effective parental engagement.
Confidential, sensitive, and effective parental engagement involves being a part of a child ’s
physical, enthusiastic, social, and intellectual advancement youngsters from early stages to
adulthood regardless of the biological relationship between them. It involves parents being able
to effectively communicate with their children. The child should be able to confide in their
parent. He or she must trust that whatever secret he or she shares with the parent remains private
and confidential. If possible, aparent should have acoded communication through which they
can communicate confidently and effectively. A parent is supposed to instill in achild certain
behaviors that he or she deems fit in society. Once instilled at a young age, the kid will go
through adolescence to adulthood holding on to these values.
Sensitivity means that aparent should be keen to understand his or her child to know what he or
she likes and dislikes, his or her strengths, and weaknesses. He or she should be able to interpret
the signals from his or her child and act upon them. If they need support and encouragement, he
or she should encourage them. If they need to be punished and guided, the parent should do so.
Parental engagement entails parents being the first role model for their kids. Most kids emulate
what their parents do. If aparent is calm, collected, and composed, the kid would not be far from
that. If the parent is reckless, the kid might turn out either reckless or responsible because he or
she is forced to grow up first. They should also show concern and participate in most of the
activities of their child.
Parents should be involved in their child ’sco-curricular activities, birthdays, dating life, school
life, and sex life. They should support and give advice whenever necessary.
To draw the attention of the parents into fully engaging themselves in the lives of their children
in school, the teachers should employ the following strategies. Organize parent-teacher
conferences more often to discuss the development and progress of the student in all aspects of
life in school; grades, behavior, personality, and sports (Lewis et.al; 2011) .This will keep the
parents on their toes. They will be keen on observing their kids do their homework, are
physically, mentally, and socially stable, and progress in whatever sport or games they are
They should introduce advantageous school processes like sports competitions and spelling B
competitions. These competitions will be beneficial to the students because there would be prizes
like scholarships, which will hook the students on the process. They will abide by every rule and
regulation for as long as they would want to be involved in the processes. The parents, on the
other hand, will have no choice but to be more involved and supportive towards their child ’s
performance in the processes because nothing makes aparent happier than observing his or her
child prosper in his or her field of interest (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012) .
The teachers should also create a meaningful, educative, and informative non-parental adult
relationship with the students. Through this relationship, they will educate and inform the
students on critical aspects of lifelike sex education, dating, and drug abuse. This will stir a
discussion between the parents and their kids back at home because they would want to confirm
what the teacher said from their parents. This would make the parents more engaged in their
children ’sdevelopment. They should also encourage parents to let their kids have meaningful
non-parental relationships with respected people in society. This way the parent will know whom
their child hangs around and what value they add to their child ’sdevelopment.
Teachers should come up with school policies that stress more on building agood relationship
between astudent and his or her parent. Learning in schools should be centered on atrinity. The
relationship between aparent and achild, the relationship between ateacher and astudent, and
the relationship between ateacher and aparent. Doing all these will help in bringing up achild ’s
grades, arrests of students will reduce, there will be lower cases of post-traumatic stress disorder
among students, and the adolescent kids will develop positively.
Charity begins at home. In as much as the school environment and peer pressure influences an
adolescent ’sdevelopment, there is no bigger influence than the influence the home environment
has on the kid. Parents play the main part in the development of an adolescent and teachers are
just there to help. For aschool environment to influence an adolescent positively, he or she must
find something that keeps him or her involved. Peer pressure has ahuge influence on adolescents
who have weak minds, low self-esteem, lack self-confidence, and are struggling to fit in. Parental
involvement in an adolescent ’slife can beat the effect peer pressure has on him or her.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Parent engagement: Strategies for involving
parents in school health .ERIC Clearinghouse.
Gaias, L. M., Johnson, S. L., White, R. M., Pettigrew, J., & Dumka, L. (2018). Understanding
school –neighborhood mesosystemic effects on adolescent development. Adolescent
Research Review ,3(3), 301-319. Springer. Accessed [12 April 2021]. Retrieved from
Lewis, L. L., Kim, Y. A., & Bey, J. A. (2011). Teaching practices and strategies to involve inner-
city parents at home and in the school. Teaching and Teacher Education ,27 (1), 221-234.
Mishra, A., Maheswarappa, S. S., Maity, M., & Samu, S. (2018). Adolescent's eWOM intentions:
An investigation into the roles of peers, the Internet and gender. Journal of Business
Research , 86 , 394-405. Accessed [12 April 2021]. Retrieved from
Soyer, G. F. (2019). Urie Bronfenbrenner: the ecology of human development book
review. Journal of Culture and Values in Education ,2(2), 77-80.
Tom é,G., de Matos, M. G., Sim ões, C., Camacho, I., & AlvesDiniz, J. (2012). How can peer
group influence the behavior of adolescents: Explanatory model. Global journal of health
science , 4(2), 26. Accessed [12 April 2021]. Retrieved from
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